Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan & Tajikistan - Heart of the Silk Road
Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan & Tajikistan - Heart of the Silk Road
The legendary ‘Silk Road’ occupies a mythical place in the imaginations of western travellers, a remote region in the centre of the Eurasian landmass through which countless traders journeyed on their voyages between Europe and the Far East. As well as commerce, the exchange of ideas and cultures flowed through the various arteries of the Silk Road, resulting in an incredible flowering of architecture, education and religion. Tucked away between the Indian subcontinent and Russia lay the legacies and monuments of numerous civilisations, and a warm and friendly people with intriguing cultural traditions. This tour takes you on a journey through the enigmatic sites and unique cultures of this mystical region. We visit the truly astounding sites of Khiva and central Asia’s holiest city, Bukhara and of course take in the spectacular architecture of Samarkand’s Registan – one of the most stunning collections of architecture to be found anywhere. Stepping further afield we travel to Turkmenistan and the ancient capital of Konye-Urgench as well as the splendid site of Merv, and cross the border to Tajikistan with its stunning mountain scenery. This breathtaking region has often been at the centre of world history, its strategic routes fought over by Mongols, Russians, British and many more and its treasures long coveted by others. Those who travel here will understand why.
Fitness ●●●○○ | Off the Beaten Track ●●●●○ | Culture ●●●●○ | History ●●●●● | Wildlife ●○○○○
- The splendour of the cities of Khiva, Bukhara and Samarkand
- The desert wonders of Merv.
- The striking monuments of Ashgabat
- The stunning scenery of Lake Iskander Kul
Accommodation: Mix of hotels and tourist cottages
Included Meals: Daily breakfast (B), plus lunches (L) and dinners (D) as shown in the itinerary.
Group Size: Maximum of 12
Start Point: Tashkent
End Point: Tashkent
Transport: Private cars or minibuses, domestic flights
Countries: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan & Tajikistan
Day 1 – Tashkent
Arrive in Tashkent and transfer to the hotel. Depending on your time of arrival, you may have time to explore the city. Overnight at Shodlik Palace or similar.
Uzbekistan’s capital displays its Silk Road heritage even today. An ancient city dating back 2000 years it is the largest in Central Asia and probably it’s most cosmopolitan. Although much of it has been rebuilt following an earthquake in the 1960s, its old quarters still retain their charm with narrow streets and 500 year old mosques, medressas and other religious buildings. Tashkent has always been a centre of commerce and trading links established with Russia made it wealthy during the Middle Ages. In the middle of the 19th century it was a focus of rivalry between the Emir of Bukhara and the city of Khokand to which Tashkent paid tribute. Seizing the opportunity to take advantage of the regional turmoil, the Russian army was able to gain control of Tashkent, bringing it under the Tsar’s rule in a gradual process of imperial expansion throughout Central Asia. Tashkent became the capital of Russian Turkestan and attracted great numbers of immigrants – today there are sizeable Russian and Korean communities within the city.
Day 2 - Khiva
Fly to Urgench and transfer to Khiva (30km), a stunning city with a wealth of ancient monuments. We spend the afternoon exploring its sites, including its many mosques, medressas and mausoleums of former rulers. Overnight at Malika Khiva Hotel or similar. (B)
Khiva is one of the true highlights of this astounding region – its ancient monuments have been superbly preserved and its historic centre contains more than fifty of them, along with around 250 old houses dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries. The inner town, or Ichon Qala, is encircled by 18th century mud walls and holds the cream of Khiva’s sites, a collection of remarkable palaces, mosques and mausoleums capped with bright blue domes and bedecked with stunning decoration. Minarets poke into the sky while its graceful archways betray links with Moghul India, and it is easy to visualise what this city once looked like when it was one of the most important in the region. Khiva was once an independent khanate renowned as a centre of the slave trade – raiders from Khiva would set off to vulnerable communities bringing back slaves to live in tortuous conditions, or be sold to end up somewhere else along the Silk Road. Peter the Great first sought to bring Khiva under his control in 1717, but it was not to be – Russian forces were tricked and then massacred, humiliating the Tsar. In following years a number of attempts were made to free Russian slaves and take Khiva but it was not until 1873 that it fell.
Day 3 – Khiva
Continue our exploration of this marvellous city listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Later there will be time for you to explore on your own. Overnight at Malika Khiva Hotel or similar. (B)
Day 4 – Konye-Urgench - Ashgabat
We cross the border into little known Turkmenistan and head for the site of Konye-Urgench, an ancient capital of the land of Khorezm with beautiful mausoleums (240km). After visiting its key sites we fly to Turkmenistan’s capital, Ashgabat. Overnight at Ak Altyn Hotel or similar. (B)
Please note that the procedure for crossing borders can be lengthy even at quieter times. The border guards (especially those on the Uzbekistan side) carry out thorough searches of luggage and will pay close attention to any medicines and reading materials.
Konye-Urgench was the capital of the ancient land of Khorezm in the 10th century, but has not had the easiest time since then. Falling first to the Seljuks and then falling under the control of their successors the Khorezmshahs, it enjoyed a brief period as the centre of Islamic Central Asia, replete with numerous beautiful mosques and medressas. This was not to last long however. In 1221 it was attacked by the armies of Genghis Khan, who besieged the city for six months before destroying it, leaving little but ashes and bodies. ‘Konye-Urgench became the abode of the jackal and the haunt of the owl and the kite’, wrote one local historian. Having rebuilt itself it was then sacked by Timur (Tamerlane) adding to its woes. Fortunately, a few architectural monuments survived this tragedy, notably the impressive mausoleums of former sultans as well as arched gates and fortresses which stand as testament to the former glories of this remote corner of Asia.
Day 5 – Ashgabat - Mary
Spend the morning exploring the sites of Ashgabat, a modern city that has been the focus of extensive and some would say eccentric building projects. We then fly to Mary, an oasis town close to the ancient city of Merv. Overnight at Mary Hotel or similar. (B)
Ashgabat was a fairly insignificant town before the arrival of the Russians, who chose it as an administrative centre and began to develop it in the late 19th century. In 1948 it was hit by a powerful earthquake which all but destroyed the city, which had to be completely rebuilt. Although reconstruction occurred during the Soviet era, it is Ashgabat’s development since independence in 1991 which has given the city its very unusual character. A pet project of the then dictator Niyazov, Ashgabat was the focus of his ‘nation building’ efforts and as such is home to a bewildering array of monuments, most of them faced with white marble tiles that give the city an almost glittering effect. There are few cities in the world that are so linked to one man, and Ashgabat is a striking and unusual place, at odds with other Central Asian cities but fascinating in its own right.
Day 6 – Merv - Bukhara
This morning we visit the ancient site of Merv, the most important in Turkmenistan and dating back 2500 years with an array of old mosques, citadels and Buddhist stupas. After exploring Merv we cross the border back into Uzbekistan and head to Bukhara (350km), Central Asia’s holiest city. Overnight at Caravan Hotel or similar. (B)
The site of Merv spreads over one hundred square kilometres and holds the remains of a number of ancient cities spread over centuries. At various times it has been home to Zoroastrians, Buddhists, Christians and Moslems and has been controlled by a number of dynasties including the Timurids. Merv’s attractions are wide and varied – mausoleums of former rulers and Sufi scholars, old Seleucid citadels, traditional ‘ice houses’ and the remains of ancient walls. Merv was comprehensively sacked by the Mongols in the 13th century but rose to prominence again under the Timurids two hundred years later. With so many influences, Merv is a microcosm of Central Asian history and a delight to explore.
Day 7 – Bukhara
We spend today exploring Bukhara, one of the most spectacular cities in the region and with a superbly preserved old quarter. Overnight at Caravan Hotel or similar. (B)
Mighty Bukhara is renowned as the holiest of Central Asia’s cities and is said to have been in existence when Alexander the Great passed through the region, more than two thousand years ago. Its old centre is exceptionally well preserved and contains old medressas and mosques, ancient minarets and protected buildings dating back as far as the 10th century. The independent khanate of Bukhara was one of the focal points of the ‘Great Game’ – a period of imperial rivalry between Britain and Russia in the 18th and 19th centuries that saw each seek to expand their influence. The British sent Alexander Burnes to the city in 1832 in an attempt to bring the city into their sphere of influence, but this was inconclusive and although Burnes was treated well, later emissaries were to fare far worse – two English officers were kept captive there for some time before eventually being executed in Bukhara’s Registan square.
Day 8 – Gijduvan – Samarkand
Drive to the legendary city of Samarkand (300km) stopping en route at Gijduvan, locally renowned as a centre for ceramics. Upon arrival in Samarkand we begin to explore. Overnight at Malika Hotel or similar. (B)
Day 9 - Samarkand
A full day to discover glorious Samarkand with its spectacular collection of traditional buildings. The city is most famous for its Registan Square, which contains perhaps the most stunning and well preserved architecture in the whole region. Long held in awe by early western travellers, it is easy to lose yourself in wonder at the incredible mosques and medressas, elaborately decorated in blue tiles and traditional Islamic art. Overnight at Malika Hotel or similar. (B)
Samarkand is perhaps the most atmospheric of all of Uzbekistan’s and the whole region’s cities, a glorious collection of immaculately preserved monuments that reach their climax in the superb Registan square, renowned as the finest architectural ensemble in Central Asia. Founded in the 8th century BC by the Persians, Samarkand has always been an important centre for the various forces passing through and has at times been controlled by Arabs, Sogdians and the armies of Alexander the Great. It was Timur who left the greatest mark on the city, designating it as his capital and embarking on a program of building that was continued after his death to produce one of the most startling sights in Asia. Vivid blue capped minarets jostle for space with tiled medressas, enormous arched gateways decorated with Islamic art and numerous mosques and mausoleums of the great and the good, as well as a marvellous observatory built by the ruler and astronomer Ulug Beg. Samarkand takes your breath away – there is no other place like it.
Day 10 –Termez
A long day of driving will bring us to Termez on the border with Afghanistan (450km). On arrival we hope to visit the Termez Archaeological Museum, to gain an insight into the particular history of the city, but this is subject to change as it is closed on occasion. Overnight at Meridien Hotel or similar. (B)
Perched on the border with Afghanistan, Termez is unusual in that it contains the only evidence of past Buddhist civilisation in Uzbekistan, with some old monasteries and a Buddhist stupa that date back to between the 1st and 3rd centuries still remaining today. In the 7th century the city was conquered by Arab forces and became a major centre of Islam. In the 13th century Genghis Khan stormed through here and razed much of the city to dust, but it was rebuilt under the Timurids. Its position meant that it had a particular strategic significance when it was under Russian control, and it was one of the further outposts of the Russian and Soviet empires.
Day 11 – Dushanbe
After breakfast we will view the ironically named “Friendship Bridge”, before visiting the 15th century mausoleum of al Hakkim al Termezi, the Sufi leader known as Termez Ota or the Father of Termez City. From there we cross the border into Tajikistan and drive to Dushanbe (270km), the capital. On arrival we explore Dushanbe’s sites and soak up the atmosphere of this little visited Central Asian city. Overnight at Lotus Hotel or similar. (B)
Dushanbe is a relatively modern town that rose to prominence during the Soviet era, when it was made the capital of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and named Stalinabad. Its name means ‘Monday in the Tajik language, arising from the fact that this was the day that the market was held, when Dushanbe was still a small and fairly insignificant village. The ousted Emir of Bukhara, fleeing from the Bolsheviks, stayed in Dushanbe and cooperated with Enver Pasha’s Basmachis until he had to leave the region. From Dushanbe, he fled to Afghanistan in 1921, the year the town was freed from the Basmachis as well.
Day 12 - Iskander Kul
Drive through stunning scenery to Lake Iskander Kul in the Fann Mountains (150km), where we have opportunities to hike around the lake shore. We have the rest of the day to explore the area and can visit nearby waterfalls and springs as well as small settlements. Overnight at tourist cottages. (BLD)
Day 13 – Istravshan- Khudjand
After breakfast we drive over the Shahristan pass to the capital of northern Tajikistan, Khudjand. We will stop on the way in Istravshan where we will visit the Mugh Fortress, Kok-Gumbaz Medressa and Chor-Gumbaz mosque and local bazaar. We continue to Khudjand and on arrival we will take a city tour which includes Pushkin Square (named after the Russian writer), Kamoli Khudjandi Square (named after the Persian poet), the fortress of Timur Malik and a visit to the central market which is one of the oldest in Tajikistan, Overnight at Khudjand Hotel or similar. (BLD)
Day 14 – Tashkent
Cross the border back to Uzbekistan and head to Tashkent (265km) for our final night. Overnight at Shodlik Palace or similar. (B)
Day 15 – Tashkent
Tour ends with a transfer to the airport. (B)
Fergana Valley Extension
Day 1- Tashkent
The morning is at leisure and we then begin the drive to Fergana (approximately 300 km), stopping at the Kamchik Pass for photos, and any other places of interest along the way. On arrival in Fergana there may be time to look around. Overnight at Hotel Asia Fergana or similar.(B)
Day 2- Rishtan – Margilan
A full day excursion to Rishtan famous for its traditional cobalt pottery techniques and Margilon to witness traditional silk production and the local bazaar. Overnight at Hotel Asia Fergana or similar. (B)
Day 3- Kokand – Tashkent
After breakfast drive back to Tashkent via Kokand visiting Khudoyar Khan’s Palace, the Norbuta Museum- Bia Madrassah, and the Modarikhon Mausoleum. Overnight at Shodlik Palace Hotel or similar. (B)
Day 4- Tour ends.
Transfer to the airport for flight home. (B)
Arrival and departure transfers
Services of English speaking guide / tour leader
Meals as listed (B – Breakfast, L – Lunch, D – Dinner)
Entrance fees for sites listed as part of the itinerary
Any airport taxes